Viet Nam Sustainable Development Strategy for 2011-2020 (II)

Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung on April 12, 2012 signed Decision No. 432/QD-TTg on approving the Viet Nam Sustainable Development Strategy for the 2011-2020.


4. Priorities of sustainable development in the 2011-2020

a) Economic aspect

- To maintain sustainable economic growth, gradually carry out green growth, develop clean and renewable energies.

To improve the quality of growth, ensure macro-economic stability, especially financial and monetary policies. To transform the growth model from width to both depth and width based on effective exploitation and use of natural resources and progressive scientific-technological advances to raise productivity and competitiveness of goods and services, efficiency of the economy in general and investments in particular.

To develop and carry out green growth model, ensure the development of low-carbon economy. Economically and effectively use energy; develop clean and renewable energies to guarantee the national energy security. Gradually implement market-oriented energy prices, gradually raise the ratio of clean and renewable energy in the energy consumption structure in Viet Nam. Design an environmental-economic cost accounting system and add environment and social aspects to the System of National Accounts (SNA).

To pursue sustainable development in industrial sector with professional structure, environmentally-friendly technology and equipment; proactively prevent and handle industrial pollution, develop “green industry”, give priority to the development of sectors, technologies and products that are environmentally-friendly, speed up high-tech technological development in big cities. Gradually formulate environmental industry.

- To carry out sustainable production and consumption

To intensify mass application of cleaner production in order to increase the efficiency of natural resources, materials, energy, water while reducing emissions and pollution rate, protect the quality of the environment, people’s health for sustainable development.

To develop a civilized, harmonious and environmentally-friendly consumption culture. Gradually implement eco-label and green shopping. Develop an eco-product market and community-based initiatives for sustainable production and consumption. Apply policies to correct unreasonable consumption behavior.

- To ensure food security, develop agriculture and rural areas in a sustainable manner.

To ensure food security through protecting 3.8 million hectares of rice land, food supply, nutrition demand and food accessibility of people in accordance with the Politburo’s conclusions and Government’s resolutions.

To shift the structure of agriculture and rural areas towards industrialization, promote regional advantages; develop quality agricultural products; combine production with local and foreign market in order to lift the efficiency of using natural resources (land, water, forests, labor and capital); heighten income per hectare of cultivated land and per working day; improve farmers’ living standard; sustainablly develop craft villages. Speed up the application of scientific and technological advances in production, processing, storage, particularly the application of biotechnology in creating crop plants and domestic animals varieties and production process that yield high productivity and quality. Adjust and supplement agriculture-forestry-aquaculture planning schemes in each economic zone or inter-regional economic zone towards sustainable development, combine production with market, raw material zones with processing industry.

Sustainable development of rural areas must include four processes: industrialization and modernization; urbanization; population control; environmental protection. Focus investments on developing technical infrastructure and improving the life quality of farmers in terms of economic, cultural, social, environmental and democratic aspects. The process of urbanization and modernization of rural areas must comply with the norms of building new rural areas, lessen development gap between urban and rural areas in terms of material and spiritual aspects.

- Sustainable development for economic zones and localities

To give priority to developing key economic zones capable of leading overall development while focusing on supporting disadvantaged regions so as to create a balanced development space, gradually narrow social and economic gap between regions and localities. Key economic zones will play as the engine to motivate mountainous, remote, bordering and island areas. Design proper mechanisms and policies to spur growth in all regions, promote advantages of each region and formulate inter-regional linkages.

b) Social aspect

- To accelerate poverty reduction toward sustainability; create sustainable employment; implement social progress and equality; fruitfully realize social security policies.

To prioritize resources for poverty reduction and improvement of living conditions of people in most disadvantaged areas. Support poor people and households to build houses and have means of production; implement economic development through shifting economic, crop plan, domestic animal structure for high economic value; develop mass production of goods; and assist language learning and vocational training.

To shift economic and labor structure in combination with professional development and sustainable job creation. Support vocational training and job finding for policy beneficiaries, poor people, especially those in rural and urbanized areas.

To implement social progress and equality. Create equal opportunity in accessing to development resources and enjoying basic services and social welfare; design proper policies to reduce rich-poor gap and living standard gap between regions and social groups.

To develop an diversified and effective social security system. Step up the realization of social welfare programs, support for the poor and vulnerable groups. Proactively prevent, limit and overcome risks in terms of economic, social and environmental aspects. Vigorously develop insurance system, encourage and create favorable conditions for laborers to access to and participate in insurance ranges. Expand social assistance and relief models, increase the coverage of the models over vulnerable groups.

- To stabilize population size, improve the quality of population

To stabilize population size at reasonable level, proactively adjust population growth rate, maintain reasonably low fertility rate, effectively settle structure-related issues of the population.

To raise the quality of population; improve reproductive health, health of women and children; develop physical strength and height of Vietnamese people in order to raise the quality of the workforce for serving the cause of modernization and industrialization; gradually improve the quality of the race, longevity and health of Vietnamese people.

- To develop culture in harmony with the development of the economy and Vietnamese families.

To promote fine values of the country’s culture while absorbing the quintessence of the human being’s culture, effectively handle cultural and economic relations so as to make culture the spiritual background and driving force for socio-economic development and international integration. Build healthy lifestyle and cultural environment. Develop Vietnamese people’s dignity, especially ethics for young generations, lifestyle, intelligence, physical strength, national self-esteem, sense of social responsibility and sense of law observance. Effectively prevent social evils like drugs and prostitution.

To build progressive and happy Vietnamese families-the true home for every person and healthy cell of the society. Fruitfully implement guidance, laws and policies on marriage, family, gender equality, and prevention of home violence and social evil penetration into families. Inherit, preserve and promote traditional values of Vietnamese families in combination with developing progressive values of families in developed societies.

- To sustainablly develop urban areas, build new rural areas and properly allocate population and labor in each region

To gradually develop Viet Nam’s urban system toward urban network model with synchronous, modern technical and social infrastructure; good urban living quality and environment; advanced urban architecture with national identity; preservation and promotion of traditional cultural values in accordance with each development state of the country. Implement sustainable and stable urban development on the basis of proper urban space organization; sensibly use natural resources and land, and save energy; protect the environment and balance ecology.

To develop and consolidate rural areas under new norms, in accordance with specific features of each region; preserve and uphold special cultural characteristics of Viet Nam’s rural areas. Attach importance to urban-rural linkages. Encourage the development of medium and small-size cities; mitigate gap among regions and community, between urban and rural areas and create sustainable social harmonization.

To effectively manage migrant workers to speed up proper distribution of population and laborers among regions.

- To advance the quality of education and training in order to improve intellectual standard of people and professional skills in favor of the requirements for national, regional and local development.

To basically and comprehensively renovate Viet Nam’s education system towards standardization, modernization and international integration. Synchronously implement measures to improve the quality of education and training; renovate curricula, contents and learning and teaching methods at all school levels in order to heighten the quality of comprehensive education for young generations, enhance practical knowledge and skills, self-learning ability, attach importance to social and human knowledge, supplement modern scientific and technological achievements in accordance with the absorbing capacity of students and regional and global education standard.

To focus on educating workforce capable of meeting the diverse requirements of technology and development levels of sectors and professions; produce workforce for knowledge economy development.

To effectively implement strategies for education and vocational development; human resource development strategy and planning scheme for the 2011-2020 period in line with specific conditions of each sector, region and locality. Develop a learning society, mobilize and fruitfully use all the resources for the development of education and training.

- To raise the quantity and quality of healthcare services; ensure food safety; improve working condition and environment.

To speed up comprehensive healthcare, focusing on proactive preventive medicine, timely and effectievely control epidemic diseases, early detect and timely cure diseases. Consolidate and enhance medical system towards diversification of healthcare models and stakeholders, in which public healthcare establishments take the leading role. Establish the system for provision of comprehensive healthcare services, focusing on basic health services and primary healthcare services. Improve the quality of healthcare rehabilitation services at all levels; reduce patient overload in central-level hospitals. Upgrade infrastructure and working conditions of communal or ward medical stations. Speed up human resource development for healthcare sector and social workers; train community health workers, medical technicians.

To gradually formulate the system for management and control of food hygiene and safety so as to protect consumers’ health and interests.

To improve working conditions; reduce pollution of working environment, labor accidents and occupational diseases; care for laborers’ health and enhance occupational safety and health.

- To maintain socio-political stability, firmly protect independence, sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity; actively integrate into the international community.

To ensure security, politics, and social order and safety; enhance national defense potential in order to firmly protect independence, sovereignty, maintain peace and stability for national construction and development; closely combine national defense and security with socio-economic development and environmental protection.

To expand internatoinal cooperation, responsibly implement international commitments; pursue proactive integration to build an independent and self-reliant economy, and improve Viet Nam’s position on the international arena.

c)  Resources and environment

- Degradation prevention, effective and sustainable use of land resources

To enhance the effectiveness of land use. Ensure the balance of land use demand among sectors and food security. Develop land fund for sustainable socio-economic development. Reform planning work and land use to make sure that land-use planning is synchronous and appropriate to socio-economic development planning and avoid overlapping between urban planning, planning of construction in rural residential areas, industrial park planning and land-use planning, avoid construction of solid establishments on land containing minerals. Develop transparent and effective system of financial and price policies in relation to land.

To increase the productivity of land ecosystems and consider sustainable agriculture production as a priority, promulgate policies on poverty reduction support based on the view of climate change adaptation and biodiversity conservation, apply cultivation techniques in order to mitigate the use of fertilizer and chemical substances in agriculture production. Enhance scientific and technological research in combination with preservation of local residents’ knowledge to prevent land degradation and restore degraded land. Develop structure of crop plants and livestock in accordance with each specific region, ensure sustainable use of land resources and protect and develop forests.

- Protection of water environment and sustainable use of water resources

To effectively protect, exploit and use national water resources on the basis of united mangement over the water resources, water security guarantee for socio-economic development, and acceleration of cooperation with neighboring countries in sharing cross-border water resources. Sparingly use and increase economic efficiency of water consumption. Consider water as the important national asset and enhance the effectiveness of water resources management. Focus on protecting the environment in river basins. Develop and implement programs and projects on general management of river basins, water sources, underground water.

To enhance the development of waste water collection and treatment systems in urban areas and industrial parks. Enhance research into measures for treating waste water discharged from agricultural production and aquaculture. Prevent degradation of and restore the quality of water sources, especially water of key river basins.

- Proper exploitation and economical, sustainable use of minerals

To properly and effectively exploit and use minerals, ensure mineral reserves for short and long-term development of economic sectors. Reduce and strictly control the import of raw resources and by 2020, put a stop to export of unprocessed minerals. Focus on designing strategies, investigation and exploitation planning in relation to minerals; develop workforce, science research, and application of science and technology in basic geological survey for mineral resources. Implement inspection and exploitation of mineral resources in accordance with approved strategies and planning schemes. Enhance investments in basic investigation, apply advanced mineral sensoring and exploitation technologies.

To raise the effectiveness of State management over minerals; speed up environmental protection and restoration in mineral exploitation. Cross out “give-take” mechanism in mineral exploitation, carry out mineral management through “auditing” or “tendering”. Enhance exploration of new mineral mines and possibilities of replacing minerals in danger of being scarce.

- Protection of marine, coastal, island environment and development of marine resources

To protect and sustainably use marine resources and environment in order to turn Viet Nam into a rich and powerful country based on its sea-born economy, firmly protect national sovereignty over islands and sea, contributing to the cause of modernization and industrialization and sustainable development.

To ensure the effective and united management of marine resources and environment through the establishment of full and proper legal basis, particularly the Law on Marine Resources and Environment, Marine Resources and Environment Strategy and necessary conditions for sustainable management, exploitation, use and protection of marine resources and environment.

To step up research and investigation into natural conditions, resources and environment of Viet Nam’s maritime zones; establish scientific background in order to enhance State management over, promote advantages of Viet Nam’s sea, islands and coastal areas.

- Forest protection and development

The protection of forests is considered as the protection of continually developing ecosystem and guarantee of optimal re-generation and use of forests. Attach importance to dissemination and awareness improvement of forest protection policies, resolutely deal with sabotage acts causing serious consequences on the environment and State property. Develop forest eco-services and enhance the application of payment mechanisms for forest eco-services to ensure the interests of users and providers of eco-services.

To make planning, classify and develop three forest categories (special-used, protective, and productive forests); combine preservation with the development of ecotourism, convalescence tourism and other environmental services. Apply scientific and technological advances and inherit forest production experience of local residents. Research into forest development through improving crop seeds and implementing sivilcultural practices. Properly exploit and use forests so as to reproduce and improve forest quality.

- Reduction of air pollution and noise in big urban areas and industrial parks

To speed up activities of air observation, inventories and control in urban areas. Control and restrict sources of dust pollution from construction and transport activities. Enhance measures to supervise and reduce air pollution and noise caused by transport, industrial production and people’s daily activities.

To perfect the functions, tasks and structural organization of the apparatus managing air environment in urban areas and industrial parks.

- Effective management of solid and toxic wastes

To raise the efficiency of managing solid and toxic wastes in order to improve the quality of the environment, ensure public health. Reduce discharge of solid wastes and mitigate buried wastes in order to save land resources and prevent environmental pollution. Closely monitor toxic wastes discharged by production and health sectors.

To develop solid wastes management system in which solid wastes at source are classified, collected, reused, renewed and absolutely treated with progressive technologies; infrastructure, financial and human resources for management of solid wastes.

To enhance waste inventories and observation, gradually conduct waste audit in production establishments and industrial parks. Effectively organize the implementation of the National Target Program for Reducing Pollution and Improving the Environment.

- Biodiversity conservation and development

To preserve and development biodiversity sustainably. Harmoniously combine protection with exploitation and use of biodiversity and prevent poverty. Develop eco-tourism, ensure stability in life of people living in preservation areas; develop sustainable buffer zones for preservation areas. Apply science and technology advances, traditional knowledge, and payments for eco-services in the preservation and development of eco-diversity. Guarantee the engagement of local residents in the process of developing and implementing eco-diversity preservation planning.

- Reduction of impacts, climate change adaptation, prevention of natural disasters

To develop and enhance people’s response and resilience capacity to protect natural resources in the context of climate change and improve living standards, ensure environmental security and sustainable development. Build a system to monitor climate change and sea level rise. Modernize observation system and technology for hydro-meteorological forecasting for early warnings of extreme weather events. Organize the implementation of the National Climate Change Strategy; design and issue Law on climate change prevention, control and mitigation.

To enhance awareness, responsibility and capacity to cope with climate change and prevent natural disasters of relevant stakeholders; enhance science and technology activities, organization capacity, and institution; develop policies and human resources in order to actively response to climate change and mitigate impacts and losses caused by climate change.


(to be continued)


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